BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bass, Bernard M. Transformational Leadership: Industrial, Military, and Educational Impact. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998. Print.

  • Transactional leaders are those who lead through social exchange.

  • Politicians lead by exchanging one thing for another.

  • Transformation leaders are those who stimulate and inspire followers to both achieve extraordinary outcomes and in the process, develop their own leadership capacity

  • Transformational leaders help followers grow and develop into leaders by responding to individual followers’ needs by empowering them and by aligning the objectives and goals of the individual followers

Bass, Bernard M., and Ralph M. Stogdill. Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. New York: Free, 1990. Print.

  • Leaders are active participants in various activities.

  • They interact easily with a wide range of personalities and this interaction is valued by others.

  • They are not only cooperative with others but are able to enlist cooperation and to execute projects.

  • Interpersonal skills including tactfulness make them attractive to followers.

  • Leaders are valued by group members because they have such characteristics as nurturance and popularity that foster loyalty and cohesiveness in the group.


Borgatta, Edgar F., Robert F. Bales, and Arthur S. Couch. "Some Findings Relevant to the Great Man Theory of Leadership." American Sociological Review 19.6 (1954): 755. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

  • The most effective group is the one which has the most adequate all-around leader (“great man”).

  • Such attention is understandable when one considers that history is frequently written from the reference point of “great men.”

  • In this study, we have define the great man in terms of a product of the four measures mentioned above.


Burns, James M. G. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row, 1978. Print.

  • Leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation. (transformation)

  • “Give and take” relationship. (transactional)


Carlyle, Thomas. Heroes and Hero-worship. London: Collins, 1900. Print.

  • Great leaders are born with the attributes necessary to come to roles of power

  • Great leaders are born possessing certain traits that enable them to rise and lead.

  • Great leaders arise when the need for them is great.


Fiedler, Fred E. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. Print.

  • Effective leadership is dependent on many factors that include the style of leading and control over a situation.


Goldberg, Lewis R. "An Alternative "Description of Personality": The Big-Five Factor Structure." Personality Processes and Individual Differences (n.d.): n. pag. Oregon Research Institute. Web. 11 Nov. 2016.

  • Trait theory big five traits: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness

Northouse, Peter Guy. Leadership: Theory and Practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2013. Print.

Stogdill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 35--71​